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JACKSON AVW (1938) The new character out-of Mani, the newest originator from Manichaeism

Though present it is as though the guy was basically absent, and although live it is since if he were inactive

Diary of the Western Oriental Community 58: 235-40. Going representations out-of Mani otherwise Manes, c. 216-276 Ce, was talked about, with said of the community indexed by al-Nadim (composing c. 987 Ce) that Mani are lame both in feet or even in his right foot. You to community might be supported by retranslation from an expression during the this new Pahlavi Denkart (3.200, 1-13) (discover Dinkard, above), using the title ‘broken’ otherwise ‘crippled’ in order to Mani (come across lower than, al-Nadim, Fihrist, pp. 773, 794).

Al-JAHIZ (Abu Othman Amr bin Bahr). Al-Barsan wal-Argan wal-Umyan wal-Hawlan [The new Lepers, new Lame, this new Blind, plus the Squinting], ed. Abdel-Salam Haroun (1998). Cairo. Al-Jahiz (776-868) is a prolific, important and you will notably ugly writer having ‘goggle eyes’ (jahiz), during the Basra (today inside the Iraq), whose performs has been much quoted over the Arab community. Here, predicated on Michael Dols, the guy chatted about “bodily infirmities eg facial skin disorders, lameness, paralysis, and deafness and personal properties such as for example hair loss, leanness, and you will ugliness.” His aim would be to reveal that “real infirmities and peculiarities do not impede just one out-of getting a completely productive person in the new Muslim neighborhood otherwise club him off important practices. Al-Jahiz was able that real circumstances aren’t public stigmas however they are what is called signs and symptoms of divine true blessing otherwise favor.” (Meters Dols, 1983, The latest leper from inside the Gothic Islamic people. Speculum 58: 891-916, to your p. 901) Even after their own exposure to negative societal reactions, al-Jahiz in just one of his best-recognized really works, ‘The Secret off Creation’, composed harshly about public aspects of deafness. Aside from the deaf man or woman’s loss of sounds, “Men and women are bored in the organization in which he is a burden to them. He is struggling to listen to the mans tales and you may discussions. ” (quoted because of the F. Haj, Impairment from inside the Antiquity, q.v., p. 159). A unique commentator notes you to definitely “Al-Barsan wal-Argan. ” is one of hard works by Jahiz, and its matter is practically unique in historic Arabic books. (Around does not seem to be an enthusiastic English translation offered at present).

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JAIN, Jagdish C (1947) Lives into the Old India since the Depicted from the Jain Canons. Bombay: The fresh new Publication Providers. Disease and you can cures, also individuals handicaps, from Jaina offer (pp. 178-81). Those with disabilities, as well as rational retardation, is omitted out-of signing up for religious requests (194). Get a hold of Tattvartha Sutra, below; and 2nd a few issues).

[JAINA Messages] Gaina Sutras interpreted of Prakrit, transl. Hermann Jacobi, 2 vols, (1884 and 1895), SBE 22 & forty-five, Oxford: Clarendon. [New SBE series used an enthusiastic italicised ‘G’ unlike ‘J’, without a doubt explanations. Here ‘Gaina’ could have been reinserted regarding the typical alphabetical purchase having benefits.] – New Akaranga Sutra (during the vol. I), regarding even the 5th century Ce, provided classes having a holy and you will simple lives. Disability and impairment arrive, e.grams. “on devastation of your attitudes of one’s ear, vision, body organs regarding smelling, tasting, touching, a person becomes conscious of the new decline off lifetime” (vol. I: p. 15) [Bk I (2) 1]. Fruit regarding wrong serves into the before lifestyle is actually: “Comes and you will leprosy, consumption, dropping disorder, blindness and stiffness, lameness and you may humpbackedness, Dropsy and you can dumbness, lookup! apoplexy (?) and you can eyes-condition, shaking and you can crippledness, elephantiasis and you may diabetes, These represent the 16 ailment enumerated inside due purchase; as well as all of them of many ailments and injuries exist.” (I: 54) [Bk I (6) step one.] Yet , correct-minded someone is always to take care to explore inoffensive words when conference anyone with such as for instance criteria. They “must not talk of these such as this: ‘He has got comes otherwise leprosy, etc [including the new terms and conditions found above]; his give are cut, otherwise his feet, nostrils, ear, lip try clipped.’ Getting because all these people, verbal to help you this kind of language, become mad, which, given well, they want to maybe not speak to them such vocabulary.” (I: 152-53) [Bk II, (4) dos.] – The fresh new Uttaradhyayana Sutra (inside the Vol. II) as well as notes impairment with age, “Should your human body grows dated, plus hair transforms white, the power of your ears decrease”, likewise to the eyes, nostrils, tongue, touching (II: p. 44) [chapter X]. – New Sutrakritanga Sutra (in Vol. II) states into the passing this new “blind-born guy” (p. 243), and you may “men which walk on crutches” (p. 269). Monks hankering shortly after matrimony try cautioned of your own dreadful disablement of you to definitely state: being purchased regarding the out-of beginning till midnight because of the partner, together with remaining portion of the nights comforting newborns and you may laundry the nappies (pp. 275-78). Monks just who indulge in erotic pleasures is actually guaranteed still even worse vexation once they pass away; following they “is born deaf-and-dumb, otherwise blind [footnote: sometimes blind by birth, otherwise seriously dumb or unaware], or stupid of the delivery.” (p. 363; similar to the pp. 367, 430) [Bk 2 (2); and you will 2 (7)].